Il LaBAAF agisce in stretta collaborazione con istituzioni del Trentino - Alto Adige (Soprintendenze per i beni culturali di Trento e Bolzano, Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, EURAC, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Fondazione MAC), universitarie e di ricerca, nazionali (IIPP) e internazionali (UISP), o finalizzate alla divulgazione scientifica, nell’ambito di progetti cofinanziati dallo stesso Dipartimento, dalla Regione, Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Comuni, Enti privati, Parchi Nazionali, Soprintendenze, MIUR, CNR e Comunità Europea.
Project of Fabio Santaniello, Announcement CARITRO 2018 and co-financing UNITN from 01/12/2018 to 31/01/2021
During the Neolithic period human beings established a new relationship with nature due to the development of agriculture and farming. The spread of Neolithic groups from the Near East to Europe, has been investigated by mean of mathematical, genetic and environmental models or, as in most cases in Trentino, through the study of pottery typology. The latter is used as a source of information about relationships (eg exchanges, acculturation) between groups or different cultures. However, these studies provide few indications about agricultural techniques and on the relationship between man and domestic species. Currently, what is known is mainly related to studies of stone artefacts that were used to cut, reap, butcher but also to work leather and grind cereals. These studies, based on techno-functional analysis, are still under development but they have already demonstrated the existence of different agro-pastoral traditions and techniques in Italy and in the Mediterranean area, suggesting various dynamics of diffusion and adaptation of the Neolithic communities. This kind of studies are lacking in Trentino despite: a) the role of this region as a passage for Neolithic groups between the North and South of the Alps and b) the current presence of numerous agro-pastoral traditions adapted to the Alpine environment and cultural contexts.
The project developed with the contribution of the CARITRO foundation and the University of Trento, will analyze the appearance and development of the most ancient agro-pastoral practices in Trentino. This goal will be achieved through the study of lithic artefacts found in three archaeological sites (Riparo Gaban, La Vela and Lugo di Grezzana) attesting the neolithization of north eastern Italy. The technological-functional approach has already been successfully applied in other European and Italian contexts but is almost unheard in Trentino. At the same time, an historical-ethnographic research on traditional agro-pastoral activities in the Alpine area will be carried out in order to highlight behavioral recurrences with archaeological data in relation with the environment and production activities.
SANTANIELLO F., DELLADIO V., FERRAZZI A., GRIMALDI S., PEDROTTI A., 2020: Nuovi dati sulla tecnologia litica del neolitico antico dell’area padano-alpina: i rimontaggi di Lugo di Grezzana (Verona), “IpoTESI di Preistoria”, 13, (2020), pp. 53-66.
SANTANIELLO F., BERLOFFA A., GRIMALDI S., MAFFEI S., PEDROTTI A., GIALANELLA S., 2020: Density measurements as a non-destructive approach to investigate the heat treatment of siliceous lithic artefacts, “Journal of Cultural Heritage”, 47, pp. 117-122.
SANTANIELLO F., GRIMALDI S., PEDROTTI A., (in press): Un approccio tecno-funzionale alle "Selci romboidali, “Bullettino Paletnologia Italiana”. Atti Convegno di Studi tenuto a Reggio Emilia, Sala del Tricolore, Oratorio San Filippo, Palazzo dei Musei (19 – 21 settembre 2019).
The project APSAT (Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d’Altura Trentini)-Alpinet, financed by the Provincia Autonoma di Trento, inside the programme Grandi Progetti (Big Projects), occurs in collaboration with:
- Università degli Studi di Trento - Diparimento di Lettere e Filosofia / University of Trento - Department of Humanities
- Dipartimento Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale (DICA)
- Università degli Studi di Padova – Dipartimento di Archeologia
- Castello del Buonconsiglio monumenti e collezioni provinciali – Provincia Autonoma di Trento
- Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina
- Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst)
- Università IUAV di Venezia
The aims that the projects proposes to achieve are:
- the census with innovative methods of the hilltop sites of the whole of Trentino.
- complete surveys of the ecosystems in some sample areas, in which the relations between the settlements and the productive activities, natural and anthropic landscape, architectures will be studied.
- a multidisciplinary analysis of the data collected that are able to reconstruct the evolution of the anthropic hilltom systems of the whole Trentino.
- the valutation of the conservation’s state of the hilltop site’s cultural and environmental heritage with expeditious filing of the damage and of the vulnerability.
the realization in the Museo del Buonconsiglio of a permenent Observatory, research, formation and multidiscplinar divulgation centre for the Cultural Heritage of Trentino, in full synergy with the University and with the competent tutelage authorities.
- a proposal of cultural marketing that considers a valorization through: (a) upload to the web, put online, in agreement with the Province, a WEB-GIS (with sections open to everyone and other with reserved access through password) with the datas’ census, (b) the individuation of a series of «stories» able to connect the single sites in more general cultural itineraries, (c) itineraries’ preliminary plan.
a series of pubblications of reserach’s scientific results, that will at least partly merge in one WEBsite.
a further purpose is the formation of young reserarchers through grants for the Doctoratal Schools and/or Postgratuate studies, research fellowships, master, high formation’s Summer Schools connected to construction site activated by the research groups, singularly or in collaboration between them.
Alpine Network for Archaeological Sciences (o AlpiNet) was created by the Università degli Studi di Trento and by the Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali. It consists of a network that unites the institutions of all Alpine territories and it sets the objective to create and to develop in collaboration initiatives than can increment, develop and scatter knowledge regarding the Alps’ past.
This Alpine Network intends to furnish a state of art constantly updated in the subject of European prehistory and in this way increase the awareness of archaeology as human and social rilevant science, useful to understand better both our present cultural diversity, and the past.
The Alpine network starts its activity in 2001 with the positive experience of the annual project “Le Alpi prima delle frontiere/The Alps before the frontiers” financed by the European Community (Culture 2000 EU Programme). After, the network was further developed through a following project, of the duration of 3 years (2004-2007), always co-finantiated by the European Community (Culture EU Programme),that has intensificated the collaboration existing the between the Università degli studi di Trento, the Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali e european universities that joined Alpinet, among which: University of Grenoble (France), Chambéry (France), Zürich (Switzerland), Innsbruck (Austria), Wien (Austria), Ljubljana (Slovenia) e il Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie (Germany). In this second project, moreover, the collaboration has been extended to the University of Tübingen (Germany), to the Istituto Trentino di Cultura, to the Istituto Italiano di Paletnologia Umana di Roma, to the University of Ferrara and to the Anthropology Research Center of Toulouse (France).
Project funded and sponsored by the Autonomous Province of Trento
The project “Biodiversity and history of the populations of Trentino (BioSTre)” regards the study of the genetic variation of the populations from the Province of Trento (Trentino-Alto Adige, north east Italy). It uses an interdisciplinary approach and contributes, through the integration of genetic, archeological, linguistic and historical data, to the understanding of important topics regarding the history of Trentino. Furthermore, it clarifies the relationship between the human biodiversity of Trentino and geographical and cultural factors.
- University of Rome La Sapienza (Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology, Department of Environmental Sciences)
- Catholic University of Rome (Legal medicine Institute)
- University of Florence (Department of Evolutionary Biology)
- University of Oxford (Department of Zoology)
- Istituto Italiano di Antropologia, Isita
- Sovrintendenza per i Beni culturali of the Province of Trento
- Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali (MUSE)
- Centro di Ecologia Alpina
The BIOSTRE Project
The BIOSTRE project is the first capillary genetic study on the populations from the Province of Trento (Trentino Alto-Adige region). Trentino is an ideal field of study to investigate the relationship between human genetic variation and geographical and cultural factors. In fact, in a relatively small area (6,200 Km2), it hosts populations with a high linguistic diversity. Other than Italian-speaking communities with different dialectal variants, there are three linguistic minorities. The Ladin romance language from the Fassa Valley and two German communities, the Mòcheni from the Fersina valley of Alemanne origin who settled in the territory in the XIII century and the Cimbri from Luserna of Bavarian origin whose origins in Trentino date back to 1216. This cultural diversity may have influenced the marriage behavior and consequently the genetic relationships among the different communities. Additionally, Trentino has a complex geography. In fact, there are potential isolating factors between populations, such as mountain reliefs (60% of the territory is at an altitude >1000 m. a.s.l.) which may have led to the persistence of cultural and genetic factors in the various communities. On the other hand, there are important communication routes, such as the Adige valley, that could have favored genetic exchange among populations.
The research analyzed the genetic variation of different genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and autosomal) among modern populations from Trentino, with different culture and origin.
Besides the analysis of current populations, the BIOSTRE project also analyzed the ancient human genetic variation of Trentino through the analysis of the ancient DNA from Neolithic remains discovered in the region and which date back to 6500 years ago.
The main objectives of the study were:
- To define the genetic relationships among the populations from Trentino with different culture (language) and origin, and between these and other European populations, in order to evaluate the effect of linguistic and geographical factors on their genetic structure.
- To reconstruct the processes of the ancient peopling of the region in order to better understand the origin of the populations from Trentino.
This was done in two different ways:
- Analyzing information on the genetic variation of modern populations which, through the use of models, will make it possible to better understand past events;
- Comparing the data concerning modern populations with data obtained from the analysis of ancient DNA in order to evaluate the possible genetic continuity or discontinuity among modern and ancient populations.
In reference to the origin of the populations from Trentino, the project focused mainly on the prehistoric period characterized by the shift from a subsistence economy based on hunting and gathering (practiced by hunter-gatherer groups from the Paleolithic) to that based on the production of food and breeding of animals (Neolithic farmers). The understanding of this process in Trentino also has important general implications regarding the origin of modern European populations, an issue which is currently being hotly debated in the scientific community.